2 edition of Physical meteorological, and hydrologic aspects of evapotranspiration found in the catalog.
Physical meteorological, and hydrologic aspects of evapotranspiration
Jerry R. Lambert
1970 by Water Resources Research Institute, Clemson University in Clemson, S.C .
Written in English
|Statement||by Jerry R. Lambert.|
|Series||Clemson University. Water Resources Research Institute. Report;, no. 14, Report (Clemson University. Water Resources Research Institute);, no. 14.|
|LC Classifications||HD1694.S6 C55 no. 14, S600 C55 no. 14|
|The Physical Object|
|Number of Pages||59|
|LC Control Number||77636871|
Hydrologic models have been a routine tool in studying the interaction of surface water and ground water. Basin-Scale Hydrologic Model (BSHM), a physically based distributed watershed model, was used in this study to simulate basin-scale hydrologic processes, such as evapotranspiration, surface runoff, and ground-water baseflow. Assessing the future effects of climate change on water availability requires an understanding of how precipitation and evapotranspiration rates will respond to changes in atmospheric forcing. Use of simplified hydrological models is required beacause of lack of meteorological forcings with the high space and time resolutions required to model hydrological processes in mountains river . different from each other based on considered aspects to represent the river basin or catchment topography. In this article a study on Surma-Meghna basin using GBHM is reported. GBHM is a fully distributed physical hydrologic model developed for simulation of regional watershed hydrology using digital elevation models (DEMs).
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Evapotranspiration is a very complex phenomenon, comprising different aspects and processes (hydrological, meteorological, physiological, soil, plant and others). Farmers, agriculture advisers, extension services, hydrologists, agrometeorologists, water management specialists and many others are facing the problem of evapotranspiration.
This book is dedicated to further understanding. Written at an introductory level, Elements of Physical Hydrology covers virtually every aspect of this subject, including: • The hydrological cycle • Water budgets at catchment to global scales • Spatial and temporal aspects of precipitation • Evapotranspiration • Fluid dynamics and the Bernoulli equation • Laminar and turbulent flows.
Evapotranspiration (ET) is the combined process of water surface evaporation, soil moisture evaporation, and plant transpiration.
Stormwater management applications may include water surfaces (e.g., pond, wetland, etc.), vegetation, or both, and therefore may require an estimation of evaporation, transpiration, or both to estimate water level.
That is the case with 'evapotranspiration'. A growing generation of scientists have been educated on using this terminology, and are unaware of the historical controversy and physical. A parameterization is developed for the calculation of evapotranspiration in three‐dimensional atmospheric models.
It distinguishes separately between evaporation from the ground and evapotranspiration from plant foliage. Soil water is stored in an active layer of 1 m depth and a 10 cm surface layer is separately by: Menenti, M. Physical Aspects and Determination of Evaporation in Deserts Applying Remote Sensing Techniques Institute for Land and Water Management Wageningen, The Netherlands Mengelkamp, H.-T.
Evaporation over a heterogeneous land surface: the EVA-GRIPS Project Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society 87 This is an introductory book on hydrology that covers the fundamental theories on hydrological cycle (water balance, atmospheric water, subsurface water, surface water), precipitation analysis, evaporation and evapotranspiration processes, infiltration, ground water movement, hydrograph analysis, rainfall runoff modelling (unit hydrograph), hydrological flow routing, measurements and data.
Modeling Evapotranspiration The need to effectively measure regional- as opposed to point-scale estimates of evapotranspiration, has witnessed the development of a number of modeling approaches. However, the complications mentioned above render the characteriza-tion and physical description of evapotranspiration difficult.
The third kind of evapotranspiration is the interception, which accounts for about 15% of total real evapotranspiration in Central Europe: It occurs on the surface of the plant; however, it is a pure physical process which cannot be influenced by the plant.
Therefore, interception is. Agricultural drought links various characteristics of meteorological (or hydrological) drought to agricultural impacts, focusing on precipitation shortages, differences between actual and potential evapotranspiration, soil water deficits, reduced groundwater or reservoir levels, and so forth.
Written at an introductory level, Elements of Physical Hydrology covers virtually every aspect of this subject, including: • The hydrological cycle • Water budgets at catchment to global scales • Spatial and temporal aspects of precipitation • Evapotranspiration • Fluid dynamics and the Bernoulli equation • Laminar and turbulent flowsReviews: 7.
The three drought indices perform somewhat differently, but the – and – droughts were the worst and hydrologic aspects of evapotranspiration book events in the last 64 years based on analysis of the severity, Physical meteorological and area of the meteorological and multivariate aspects of drought.
download-physical-hydrology-second-edition-book 2/8 Downloaded from on Novem by guest aspect of this subject, including: • The hydrological cycle • Water budgets at catchment to global scales • Spatial and temporal aspects of precipitation • Evapotranspiration • Fluid dynamics and the Bernoulli equation • Laminar.
The Mackenzie River basin (MRB) is the second largest basin in North America, with a drainage area of about × 10 6 km 2, and is the largest basin on the continent to drain freshwater into the Arctic Ocean (Woo and Thorne ).Freshwater discharge affects the salinity of the Arctic Ocean (Macdonald et al.
) and in turn the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (Broecker ). Part I: INTRODUCTION 1. Hydrology: Basic Concepts and Challenges Definition and Scope of Hydrology / Approach and Scope of This Book / Physical Quantities and Laws / Dimensions and Units / Properties of Water / Hydrologic Systems and the Conservation Equations / The Watershed / The Regional Water Balance / Special Characteristics of Hydrologic Variables / Hydrologic Storage / Uncertainty in.
1 Introduction. Evapotranspiration (ET) is a key hydroecological process that couples water and energy budgets (Yang et al., ), links carbon and nutrient cycles (Porporato et al., ), and represents water consumption in food and biomass production (Housh et al., ).Numerous efforts have been made in hydrologic observations and simulations to advance the understanding of ET.
% changes in evapotranspiration versus percentage change in meteorological parameters: (a) temperature (b) net radiation (c) vapour pressure (d) wind speed Despite of the increase in surface temperature, a decrease in pan evaporation observation across the United States and all over the world is known as the pan evaporation paradox (PEP).
Evapotranspiration plays a key role in simulating hydrological effect of climate change, and a review of evapotranspiration estimation methods in hydrological models is of vital importance. This book contains seven parts. The first part deals with some aspects of rainfall analysis, including rainfall probability distribution, local rainfall interception, and analysis for reservoir release.
Part 2 is on evapotranspiration and discusses development of neural network models, errors, and sensitivity. The hydrological model structure (particularly for processes driving evapotranspiration) may impact the computation of low flows (Chen et al., b, Troin et al.,Wilby and Harris, ).
This work has not focused on the physical processes leading to the above changes and how they propagate between both types of droughts. book provides an introduction to hydrological science and its concepts including Climate, the Hydrologic Cycle, Soils and Vegetation, Precipitation, Snow and Snowmelt, Water in Soils: Infiltration and Redistribution, Evapotranspiration, Ground Water in the Hydrological Cycle, Stream Response to Water-Input Events, Hydrology and Water-Resource.
This book simultaneously addresses the physical, social, and information management aspects of drought early warning, and informs readers about the tools, techniques, and conceptual models required to effectively identify, predict, and communicate potential drought-related disasters.
The physical aspects of both the Clearing and the Tower have changed relatively little over time. However, cycles of vegetation removal and re-growth may have had subtle effects 42m evapotranspiration relative humidity temperature 48m evapotranspiration solar radiation as defined by the Meteorological and Hydrological Branch of the ACP.
Through the use of a mesoscale meteorological model and distributed hydrologic model, the effects of initial soil moisture on rainfall generation, streamflow, and evapotranspiration during the North American monsoon are examined.
A collection of atmospheric fields is simulated by varying initial soil moisture in the meteorological model. However, the magnitude and distribution of mean annual evapotranspiration for regions of the United States have been estimated from hydrologic budgets given for each State in the National Water Summary (U.S.
Geological Survey, ), as shown in figure 4. The estimated mean annual evapotranspiration for each State was determined from the. Models based on process description are more complicated than the stochastic hydrological models.
Physical processes that occurred in the real world are represented through these models, such as representation of subsurface flow, channel flow, evapotranspiration, and surface runoff. Models based on process are known as deterministic hydrology.
Many forms of the Penman combination equation have been proffered for estimating daily evapotranspiration (ET) by the agricultural reference crops grass and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).This study was conducted to evaluate popular forms of the Penman equation, and to develop and evaluate general relationships for estimating daily average values of canopy and aerodynamic resistance.
Introduction. Evapotranspiration is one of the most important hydrological variables to consider when estimating hydrologic water balance, performing appropriate water resources allocation, establishing efficient irrigation scheduling and assessing hydrological impact of changing climate conditions [1–4].Evapotranspiration is affected by some factors including weather parameters, crop.
Physical Hydrology: Third Edition - Ebook written by S. Lawrence Dingman. Read this book using Google Play Books app on your PC, android, iOS devices. Download for offline reading, highlight, bookmark or take notes while you read Physical Hydrology: Third Edition.
The third section on hydrometeorology reviews the hydrologic cycle, surface energy fluxes, and the interactions between the hydrosphere and atmosphere.
Soils store vast amounts of energy and water, and this modulates the diurnal and annual cycle of temperature, provides water for evapotranspiration, and regulates the hydrologic cycle on land.
Evapotranspiration Deﬁnition Evapotranspiration is the combined net effect of evaporation and transpiration. Evapotranspiration uses a larger portion of precipitation than the other processes associated with the hydrologic cycle.
Evaporation is the process of returning moisture to the atmosphere. Water on. Jan 6, - The Hydrologic Cycle (or the Water Cycle) is a cycle of evaporation, evapotranspiration, precipitation and infiltration.
The sun heats bodies of waters such. Book Description: Among the many diverse aspects of environmental science, none is more critical to the future of society and nature than water. Understanding the role of water on Earth and making good decisions regarding water conservation and hydrological hazards depends on learning the fundamentals of physical hydrology.
16 Within these hydrologic units, distinct spatial differences, in topography, climate, geology, structure, vegetation, soil properties, land use, land cover and other features may occur. The terrestrial hydrological cycle consider all aspects of the main processes, and factors that control the processes as well.
An element (such as a tree) that contributes to evapotranspiration can be called an evapotranspirator. The transpiration aspect of evapotranspiration is essentially evaporation of water from plant leaves.
Studies have revealed that transpiration accounts for about 10 percent of the moisture in the atmosphere, with oceans, seas, and other bodies. Next, typical hydrologic physical processes, including evapotranspiration (ET), soil moisture, surface runoff, and groundwater, were simulated and analyzed for the two vegetation scenarios with same meteorological data, initial conditions, and model parameters.
Results indicate that mixed forest has larger ET than farmland for most rainfall events. About this book. With the increasing pressures on the availability and exploitation of fresh water resources through population increase, pollution and degradation of resources, and variations in distribution from regional and global change in the climate, compilation of knowledge in this area has become a prerequisite for education and training of practising and research hydrologists.
An analysis of the hydrological models, driven by the climatic forcings modelled by the REMO and RegCM3 climate models, in reproducing the hydrological aspects of the control period showed that the FEST-WB model was more sensitive to the daily temperature range in simulating the evapotranspiration.
Hydrologic fluxes interconnect the water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles and are conditioned by human impacts on the water cycle. Fundamental gaps exist in the understanding of the climatology and the average spatial and temporal characteristics of key hydrologic fluxes, namely, evapotranspiration and groundwater fluxes over large regions.
This chapter is the tenth in a series of 11 book-length chapters, collectively referred to as “this volume,” in the series U.S. Geological Survey Professional PaperSatellite Image Atlas of Glaciers of the World. In the other 10 chapters, each of which concerns a. A hydrologic model is a simplification of a real-world system (e.g., surface water, soil water, wetland, groundwater, estuary) that aids in understanding, predicting, and managing water resources.
Both the flow and quality of water are commonly studied using hydrologic models.Regional hydrological impacts of climate change: implications for water management in India 35 scenarios.
Such a sense of confusion is particularly pronounced in India, where the capacity to understand the different aspects of climate change as it affects the water systems is extremely limited among water managers.Identification of reliable alternative climate input data for hydrological modelling is important to manage water resources and reduce water-related hazards in ungauged or poorly gauged basins.
This study aims to evaluate the capability of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (NCEP-CFSR) and China Meteorological Assimilation Driving Dataset for.